William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) was an American educator, lexicographer, and philosopher. Born in Connecticut, Harris graduated from Phillips Andover Academy and enrolled at Yale University, but left in his junior year. He moved to St. Louis, where he accepted a position as a teacher of shorthand in the St. Louis public school system. He eventually rose to become the superintendent of schools in that city, a post he held from 1867 to 1880. Shortly after his arrival in St. Louis, Harris became interested in modern German philosophy, specifically the work of Hegel. From 1867 to 1893, Harris edited the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the quarterly publication of the St. Louis Philosophical Society (of which he was co-founder) and the first such journal to be published in the United States and in English. In 1873, Harris, with Susan E. Blow, founded the first permanent public school kindergarten in St. Louis. In 1880, Harris moved to Concord, MA where he helped establish the Concord School of Philosophy; he lectured at the School until 1889, when he accepted the position of United States Commissioner of Education, a post he held until 1906. In 1906, he was awarded the first meritorious award by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He published many books on both education and philosophy, including "The Psychological Foundations of Education" (1898).